Crime

Casinos have been linked to organised crime, with early casinos in Las Vegas originally dominated by the American Mafia[29][30] and in Macau by Triad syndicates.[31][32]

According to some police reports, incidences of reported crime often double and triple in communities within three years of a casino opening.[33] In a 2004 report by the US Department of Justice, researchers interviewed people who had been arrested in Las Vegas and Des Moines and found that the percentage of problem or pathological gamblers among the arrestees was three to five times higher than in the general population.[34]

It has been said that economic studies that show a positive relationship between casinos and crime usually fail to consider the visiting population at risk when they calculate the crime rate in casino areas. Such studies thus count the crimes committed by visitors, but do not count visitors in the population measure, and this overstates the crime rates in casino areas. Part of the reason this methodology is used, despite it leading to an overstatement of crime rates, is that reliable data on tourist count are often not available.

Design

Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling.[11]

Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound, odour and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in «the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash».[12]

Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested that the scent acted as an aphrodisiac, causing a more aggressive form of gambling.[13]

Casino designer Roger Thomas is cred with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008. He broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space.

Security

A sign at the Thousand Islands Casino

Given the large amounts of currency handled within a casino, both patrons and staff may be tempted to cheat and steal, in collusion or independently; most casinos have security measures to prevent this. Security cameras located throughout the casino are the most basic measure.

Modern casino security is usually divided between a physical security force and a specialized surveillance department. The physical security force usually patrols the casino and responds to calls for assistance and reports of suspicious or definite criminal activity. A specialized surveillance department operates the casino’s closed circuit television system, known in the industry as the eye in the sky. Both of these specialized casino security departments work very closely with each other to ensure the safety of both guests and the casino’s assets, and have been quite successful in preventing crime.[26] Some casinos also have catwalks in the ceiling above the casino floor, which allow surveillance personnel to look directly down, through one way glass, on the activities at the tables and slot machines.

When it opened in 1989, The Mirage was the first casino to use cameras full-time on all table games.

In addition to cameras and other technological measures, casinos also enforce security through rules of conduct and behavior; for example, players at card games are required to keep the cards they are holding in their hands visible at all times.

How Traditional and real-money gaming converge in the race for social casino

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This global industry report provides insight into ways in which traditional online gaming and real-money gaming, converge in the race for lucrative social casino. Distributed through social networks and played on mobile platforms, online Casino Games feature gambling elements, without actual real-money payout.В 

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Due to the ability to cash-out and due to the need to mitigate risk, online gambling is restricted by regulations, which differ per country, and in some cases, laws may even differ per jurisdiction. On the other hand, Social Casino operators are neither subject to tight regulations nor to age restrictions, implemented to protect minors from gambling. Social casino players buy for virtual goods, or pay to enhance their user experience, just like in traditional online gaming, but in social casino games winning real money just isnвЂt an option. In addition, the Free to Play (F2P) business model enables Social Casino Operators obtain revenue through banners shown during the game, or when players click on advertisers.

В 

With an estimated 173 million gamers worldwide, online social casino gaming revenue is expected to grow to $2.5 billion across all platforms in 2015. This report will highlight major acquisitions and provide insight in operational and cultural differences between the sectors. While e-gaming companies are quite hierarchical due to their corporate structure, social casino operators are agile and easily adapt to changing user needs. Social CTOs are often founders or Board members. The ways in which data analytics is used differs considerably; whereas online gambling primarily focusses on return of investment and revenue, social casino businesses invest in the most sophisticated analytical tools, in order to understand and predict gamers†behavior, in order to improve the user experience, the uniqueness of the game, but also to improve the profitability of (click-on) advertising.

В 

Thus, we see how these sectors are subject to great changes, driven by consumer needs. As more consumer use their smartphones to surf the web, online games — previous played on consoles — are increasingly being played on mobile phones and tablets and as social gaming is trending, we see online gambling operators move into the social casino sector, which allows them to enter markets which were previously inaccessible due to tight anti-gambling regulations. These changes resulted in social casino games, becoming the most lucrative social gaming sector in the global online gaming industry, as social games combine “the best of both worlds.”

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History of gambling houses

Gambling at the Orient Saloon in Bisbee, Arizona, c.1900. Photograph by C.S. Fly.

The precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is generally believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in almost every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon’s France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance.

The first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season. It was closed in 1774 as the city government felt it was impoverishing the local gentry.[8]

In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons. The creation and importance of saloons was greatly influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago and San Francisco. It was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, and often gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America’s first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in , now America’s second largest gambling city.

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Etymology and usage

The term «casino» is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators.

Casino is of Italian origin; the root casa means a house. The term casino may mean a small country villa, summerhouse, or social club.[2] During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place; such edifices were usually built on the grounds of a larger Italian villa or palazzo, and were used to host civic town functions, including dancing, gambling, music listening, and sports; examples in Italy include Villa Farnese and Villa Giulia, and in the US the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel (also called casa chiusa, literally «closed house»), a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent.[3][2][4]

Not all casinos were used for gaming. The Catalina Casino,[5] a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, California, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were already outlawed in California by the time it was built. The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings often held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre.[6] The Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town’s most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant.[7]

In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers’ .

References

  1. ^ (July 29, 2010). [New York Times], Retrieved 7/20/2011.
  2. ^ a b Thompson, William N. (2015). . p. 43. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  3. ^ .
  4. ^ Preble, Rossi, Keith, Francesco (2014). . p. 66. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  5. ^ . Avalonball.com. Archived from on 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  6. ^ . The Royal Library. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  7. ^ . sailingshipadventures.com. Archived from on November 23, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  8. ^ Thomassen, Bjørn (2014). . Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 160. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  9. ^ . Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  10. ^
    July 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., (Jan. 10, 2011). CBS 60 Minutes, Retrieved 7/20/2011.
  11. ^ November 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., LiveCasino.co.uk, Retrieved 2/9/2013.
  12. ^ l (June 8, 2013). The Guardian, Retrieved 2/9/2013.
  13. ^ » 2013-08-01 at the Wayback Machine.», (August 24, 2011). 2013-09-12 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved February 9, 2013.
  14. ^ «», (March 26, 2012). , Retrieved 2/9/2013.
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ . ngb.org.za. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  18. ^ . ildado.com. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  19. ^ . 22 October 2012. Archived from on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  20. ^ . Retrieved 2012-10-11..
  21. ^ a b Frank Jacobs (May 15, 2012). . The New York Times.
  22. ^ a b Gambling: Losing streak
  23. ^ . Arounder. VRWAY Communication. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
  24. ^ . 25 February 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  25. ^ , accessed May 6, 2017
  26. ^ . Gambling Info. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
  27. ^ Knightly, Arnold M. (February 2007). . Casino City Times: 1. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
  28. ^ 2012-05-12 at the Wayback Machine., (August 27, 2009). The Boston Globe, Retrieved July 20, 2011.
  29. ^ Doug McKinlay (2010-12-07). . Financial Times.
  30. ^ Jeff German (2014-03-09). . Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  31. ^ Katie Hunt (2013-06-18). . CNN.
  32. ^ Emma Reynolds (2016-10-19). . New Zealand Herald.
  33. ^ 2011-06-25 at the Wayback Machine., Jeremy Boren, (June 19, 2011). The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, Retrieved 7/20/2011.
  34. ^ McCorkle, Richard C., «Gambling and Crime Among Arrestees: Exploring the Link» (July 2004). U.S. Department of Justice’. Retrieved 7/20/2011.
  35. ^ Walker, Douglas M. «Do Casinos Really Cause Crime?» (Jan 2008). Econ Journal Watch
  36. ^ . www.cdc.gov. 2018-11-30. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  37. ^ Health, CDC’s Office on Smoking and (2018-05-09). . Smoking and Tobacco Use. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  38. ^ www.ashrae.org . Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  39. ^ kialidster.weebly.com . Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  40. ^ . www.worksafebc.com. Retrieved 2018-12-10.

Gambling in casinos

Slot machines in Atlantic City. Slot machines are a standard attraction of casinos

Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age (16 to 21 years of age in most countries which permit the operation of casinos).[9]

Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, roulette, baccarat, blackjack, and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players. This can be expressed more precisely by the notion of expected value, which is uniformly negative (from the player’s perspective). This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary items or comps to gamblers.

Payout is the percentage of funds («winnings») returned to players.

Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house’s money.

Video Lottery Machines (slot machines) have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos. As of 2011[update] investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive.

Gallery

  • Italy’s Casinò di Campione, near Lugano, is the largest casino in Europe[22]

  • Entrance to the casino at Resorts World Sentosa, Singapore

  • The Galaxy Macau at night in the Cotai Strip, Macau

  • The Casino Royale Hotel & Casino in Paradise, Nevada, United States

  • View of the Marina Bay Sands in Marina Bay, Singapore

  • The Venetian in Paradise is also the headquarters of casino giant Las Vegas Sands.

  • The Venetian Macau in the Cotai Strip is the largest casino in the world, owned by Las Vegas Sands

  • View of the Monte Carlo Casino, Monaco

  • Slot machines at the Borgata Hotel Casino & Spa in Atlantic City, , United States

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